Research has shown that the United States governments have spent a considerable amount of human and financial resources on transformational leadership initiatives, aimed at improving outcomes within the federal, state and local governments. Transformational leadership holds the answers to those seeking to develop and foster effective leadership traits that are common and valued in public sector organizations. Research has also shown that the concepts of transformational leadership are among the most popular and current approaches to understand effective leadership in organizations. This quantitative study is an attempt to compare the perception of transformational leadership traits from middle-level managers and supervisors across the three levels of government in the United States. The study used Avolio & Bass Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X (MLQ) to assess the perceived transformational leadership traits demonstrated by leaders within the federal, state and local government. Transformational leadership comprises five dimensions, which are idealized influence attributes, idealized influence behavior, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. A total of 725 employees from federal, state and local government participated in the study. The hypotheses for the study were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study concluded that while there was no significant difference in the perceived transformational traits among the three levels of government in the United States, the results also indicated that there is need for a higher level of transformational leadership practices across the three levels of government in the United States.
|Subjects||Management; Public administration; Organization theory|
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