The "glass ceiling" is one of the most compelling metaphors that have been coined in the recent century for analyzing injustices between men and women in the workplace. The term "glass ceiling" was coined by Hymowitz and Schellhardt in a 1986 Wall Street Journal report on corporate women. It is a concept that most frequently refers to barriers faced by women who attempt, or aspire, to attain senior management positions in corporations, government, education, and nonprofit organizations. It can also refer to racial and ethnic minorities and men when they experience barriers to advancement. Since men dominate the upper hierarchies of management, and since they shape policies that affect advancement to top management positions, for the purpose of this study, the male perception of the existence of a glass ceiling in their industries was examined and compared to that of women. Findings showed that there was a difference in means between male and female middle level managers. It was found that, contrary to female managers, males did not believe that the glass ceiling effect existed in U.S. organizations. Results also showed that education and generation did not interact with gendered perceptions of the glass ceiling effect to modify male and female middle level manager's perceptions of the glass ceiling. It is hoped that this study will help organizations to shape pay and advancement opportunities that are based on talent, and not on gender.
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