The downturn of the economy after 2008 and the increasing number of retiring Baby Boomers has created a shift in the population towards younger workers and values of employees more aligned with this younger age (Bates, 2004; Johnson, 2004). In addition, employees' working beyond the conventional age of 66 has created a workforce that spans four generations (Schullery, 2013). Companies are struggling to find ways to engage employees equally across all four generations (Saks & Gruman, 2011). Studies have shown, partially as a result of these changes in the workplace, that workers are not fully engaged and committed to their companies and are changing job positions and companies at an increasing rate (Johnson, 2004; Mohamed, Taylor, & Hassan, 2006; Saks, 2006; Shaw, 2005). Some have suggested that greater worker engagement in the workplace might mitigate the challenges described above (Mohamed et al., 2006; Saks, 2006). Homans' (1958) seminal study on engagement triggered an increasing realization that one key to creating or increasing retention of workers is employee engagement. Building on Homans' work, Kahn (1990) and Saks (2006) defined engagement as the meeting of employee physical and emotional needs so that turnover is reduced, quality improved and productivity maximized within the workplace as documented by the propensity of employees to commit to themselves and to the employer's vision and strategy. Assessment of engagement factors between 2000 and 2006 regarding retention, quality, and productivity has become increasingly important for companies (Bates, 2004; Johnson, 2004; Kelloway, Day, & Arla 2003; Kelloway et al., 2003; Saks, 2006). Studies on the importance of employee engagement became increasingly important with the decline in the economy in 2007-2008.
|Adviser||James R. Morgan|
|Subjects||Management; Organizational behavior|
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