Within the continuing genre of the keyboard variation, the sixteenth-century Spanish diferencia provides a fundamental version of the instrumental style. Representative examples of the Spanish musical approach appear initially in the works of the early vihuelists, with the dominant stylistic foundation subsequently realized through the keyboard music of Antonio de Cabezón (c.1510-1566) and similarly continued in the later compositions of Juan Bautista José Cabanilles (1644-1712). Comparable techniques of variation emerge in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century keyboard music of southern Italy, England, Germany, and the Netherlands, suggesting the creative influence of the preceding Spanish tradition. Corresponding methods of publication, notation, thematic material, and structural organization, as well as recurrent musical figures demonstrate that the Iberian diferencia tradition begins with the sixteenth-century vihuela compositions, reaches a mature style in the keyboard variations of Cabezón, gains additional stylistic characteristics through widespread European adoption, and ultimately returns to Spain in the seventeenth century as an amalgamation of earlier techniques. Although frequently unacknowledged within the central tradition, Spanish musical methods of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries therefore participate meaningfully in prevailing European practices.
|School||THE CLAREMONT GRADUATE UNIVERSITY|
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