This study was an investigation of the relationships among willingness to communicate, two motivational variables (intrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy), three self-regulated learning strategies (metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies, effort regulation strategies and peer learning strategies), and measures of English speaking and listening proficiency. The study primarily drew on the concept of self-regulation derived from educational psychology. A sample of 279 English majors studying at a private university in eastern Japan participated in this study. Data from a Japanese version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and scores of an in-house proficiency test designed to measure speaking and listening skills were collected. Factor analysis and Rasch analysis were conducted to develop a reliable shortened Japanese version of the MSLQ.
Multiple one-way ANOVAs indicated that students with higher speaking and listening abilities as measured by an in-house proficiency test, tended to use more metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies and effort regulation strategies compared with those with intermediate and lower speaking and listening proficiency. There were no statistically significant differences in peer learning strategies for speaking and peer learning strategies for listening.
Finally, structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized speaking and listening models of the relationships among willingness to communicate, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies, effort regulation strategies, peer learning strategies, and English speaking and listening proficiency. Modified models indicated that intrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy influenced effort regulation strategies, which in turn predicted peer Learning strategies and metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies. It was also found that peer learning strategies influenced metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies. Finally, metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies as well as willingness to communicate predicted speaking skills, but listening skills were only predicted by metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies. Thus, the results illuminated the complex interrelationships among willingness to communicate, self-efficacy, intrinsic goal orientation, effort regulation strategies, and metacognitive during-task self-regulation strategies in predicting speaking and listening skills.
Follow-up interviews with a focus group of students revealed that classroom teaching was mainly focused on speaking tasks that required proactive learning behaviors and effort and that listening tasks occupied only part of the class and that usually comprehension of main points served their purposes. The information helps explain why the speaking model had stronger interrelationships among willingness to communicate, motivational variables, self-regulation strategies, and the proficiency variable.
|Subjects||English as a second language; Educational psychology; Language|
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