National data continue to indicate many individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have not had the same access to education, employment, independent living, or extracurricular activities as the general population after high school (Blackorby & Wagner, 1996; Newman, Wagner, Cameto, & Knokey, 2009; Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005; Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Levine, & Garza, 2006). Transportation access can be a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with disabilities (Myers, 1996). Individuals with IDD face many challenges related to community integration such as obstacles to independently navigate in the community (Sohlberg, Fickas, Lemoncello, & Hung, 2009). Travel training and pedestrian navigation skills are critical since these skills impact how people live, work, and participate in their community (Groce, 1996b). It is important to have an organized and sequential way to teach independent travel to individuals with IDD since most do not learn these skills incidentally or obtain a driver’s license to navigate independently (LaGrow, Wiener, & LaDuke, 1990).
This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod® on travel route completion with four young adults with IDD (18-26 years old) participating in an inclusive individualized postsecondary program at a 4-year university. Results indicated a functional relation between picture prompts displayed on the video iPod® and participants’ acquisition of pedestrian navigation skills to and from various campus locations. Maintenance data indicated all four participants were able to continue to navigate trained routes independently for up to 28 days using the video iPod®. Generalization measures indicated 3 out of 4 participants were able to use the video iPod® to navigate untrained routes without any prompts given by the researcher. Social validity data suggested iPod ® training and supports were useful and practical for teaching independent pedestrian navigation skills. Finally, limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice were provided.