Utilizing Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, and Elaboration to Enhance Creativity and Vocabulary Use for Improving Reading Comprehension in Third through Sixth Grade Students

by Salemi, Megan Lawler, Ed.D., UNION UNIVERSITY, 2010, 128 pages; 3443006


The increased use of standardized testing to measure student and teacher success has caused a shift in the way teachers approach students and learning. Students in regular education classrooms, particularly those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, may not receive the highest quality instruction due to the testing needs of the school or other students. However, educators must find ways to include all learners in the highest quality instruction while meeting district testing needs. Creativity research provides a framework for understanding the brain and learning in a way that may help increase students’ test scores and ensure that they receive high quality instruction. In this study, creativity was operationally defined by four of its factors: fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects instruction emphasizing fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration had on students’ vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Creativity was measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and the Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory. Vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension were measured by the STAR Reading Test. It was hypothesized that students instructed in creativity during their vocabulary lessons would score higher on creativity measures and vocabulary measures. Consequently, those students should also score higher on reading comprehension measures. Eighty-seven third through sixth grade students from a small, private school in the Mid-South participated in the research. Forty-four students participated in the treatment group and 43 participated in the control group. A significant difference in scores was found between the treatment and control groups on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Verbal Form. The treatment group performed significantly higher than the control group after the treatment was administered. No other significant differences were found. Further implications of the results are discussed.

AdviserSteven Marvin
Source TypeDissertation
SubjectsInstructional design; Multicultural education; Reading instruction
Publication Number3443006

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