This dissertation investigates high performance cooperative localization in wireless environments based on multi-node time-of-arrival (TOA) and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimations in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios. Here, two categories of nodes are assumed: base nodes (BNs) and target nodes (TNs). BNs are equipped with antenna arrays and capable of estimating TOA (range) and DOA (angle). TNs are equipped with Omni-directional antennas and communicate with BNs to allow BNs to localize TNs; thus, the proposed localization is maintained by BNs and TNs cooperation.
First, a LOS localization method is proposed, which is based on semi-distributed multi-node TOA-DOA fusion. The proposed technique is applicable to mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs). We assume LOS is available between BNs and TNs. One BN is selected as the reference BN, and other nodes are localized in the coordinates of the reference BN. Each BN can localize TNs located in its coverage area independently. In addition, a TN might be localized by multiple BNs. High performance localization is attainable via multi-node TOA-DOA fusion. The complexity of the semi-distributed multi-node TOA-DOA fusion is low because the total computational load is distributed across all BNs.
To evaluate the localization accuracy of the proposed method, we compare the proposed method with global positioning system (GPS) aided TOA (DOA) fusion, which are applicable to MANETs. The comparison criterion is the localization circular error probability (CEP). The results confirm that the proposed method is suitable for moderate scale MANETs, while GPS-aided TOA fusion is suitable for large scale MANETs. Usually, TOA and DOA of TNs are periodically estimated by BNs. Thus, Kalman filter (KF) is integrated with multi-node TOA-DOA fusion to further improve its performance. The integration of KF and multi-node TOA-DOA fusion is compared with extended-KF (EKF) when it is applied to multiple TOA-DOA estimations made by multiple BNs. The comparison depicts that it is stable (no divergence takes place) and its accuracy is slightly lower than that of the EKF, if the EKF converges. However, the EKF may diverge while the integration of KF and multi-node TOA-DOA fusion does not; thus, the reliability of the proposed method is higher. In addition, the computational complexity of the integration of KF and multi-node TOA-DOA fusion is much lower than that of EKF.
In wireless environments, LOS might be obstructed. This degrades the localization reliability. Antenna arrays installed at each BN is incorporated to allow each BN to identify NLOS scenarios independently. Here, a single BN measures the phase difference across two antenna elements using a synchronized bi-receiver system, and maps it into wireless channel's K-factor. The larger K is, the more likely the channel would be a LOS one. Next, the K-factor is incorporated to identify NLOS scenarios. The performance of this system is characterized in terms of probability of LOS and NLOS identification. The latency of the method is small.
Finally, a multi-node NLOS identification and localization method is proposed to improve localization reliability. In this case, multiple BNs engage in the process of NLOS identification, shared reflectors determination and localization, and NLOS TN localization. In NLOS scenarios, when there are three or more shared reflectors, those reflectors are localized via DOA fusion, and then a TN is localized via TOA fusion based on the localization of shared reflectors.