Globalization, economic trends, competitive labor market, market forces, and other variable forces have created a sense of urgency within organizations to motivate and retain their employees (Cragg, 2007). There however seems to be a consensus that both top-down and bottom-up management approach influences this phenomenon (Mujtaba, 2007). Increasing employee turnover rates and de-motivated staffs have forced organizations to be introspective in their assessment of this problem (Abbass & Hollman, 2000). Organization’s review of their micro environment to identify possible factors that influence employees’ motivation and retention appears inconclusive (Bridges & Mitchell, 2002). Economic contractions and rising unemployment sometimes create diversion in clearly identifying the main determinants (Dawson, 2005). Research however indicates that top-down and bottom-up management approaches influences employee motivation and retention (Catlette & Richard, 2001).
|Subjects||Management; Organizational behavior|
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