This study examines the relationships among third and fourth grade teacher practices in cognitive development: understanding, application, synthesis, and judgment; emotional/social development; their students' self-reported opportunities for emotional/social development; and academic self-concept. In addition, this study investigates the relationships among mothers' level of education, students' academic self-concept, and time and frequency of reading at home. As well, this study examines differences between students by gender and ethnicity. The study was conducted in a suburban Long Island, New York school district of ethnic and socioeconomic diversity.
The survey instruments used in the study were created by the researcher and were based on the works of Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia; Goleman; Marsh and O'Neill; and Hart and Risley, and include information from the New York State Department of Education. Respondents were third and fourth grade teachers and their students. Parents of the students provided demographic information.
This study provided insight into the frequency of teacher practices in the components of the cognitive domain and the emotional/social development of their students. In addition, the study offered student perspectives about their academic self-concept, perceptions of their emotional/social development, and their time and frequency of reading at home.
Teachers reported greater frequency in their cognitive practices in understanding and application than in synthesis and judgment. In addition, teachers reported greater usage of practices in the English language arts and math than in science and social studies. Teachers perceived themselves as providing opportunities for emotional/social development more often than for the highest levels of cognition. A significant relationship existed among teacher practices in understanding in English language arts and math, synthesis, and their practices in emotional/social development of their students. However, no relationship existed between these teacher practices and student reports of their opportunities for emotional/social development.
Students reported their academic self-concept at a higher level than their emotional/social experiences. They reported on the items on a 7-point Likert Scale. Students reported frequency of reading at home on an average of three times per week or more, reading approximately 28 minutes per session. No significant relationships existed between teacher practices in emotional/social development and student perceptions of their opportunities for emotional/social development, or between teacher practices and student academic self-concept.
Significant relationships existed among student perceptions of their opportunities for emotional/social development, their time and frequency of reading at home, and academic self-concept. Relationships were revealed among mother's level of education and student time and frequency of reading at home. In addition, a significant relationship was revealed among student ethnicity and mother's level of education, and among ethnicity and frequency of reading at home. No relationships were present among gender and other student variables.