Executives and scholars have tried to discriminate how leadership is characteristically different from management. Kotterman (2006) found the need for a dependable measurement process to make comparisons between leadership versus management effectiveness since both types of actions have relevance on how to guide people. Past research on leadership effectiveness, based on ratings by subordinates, did not produce conclusive results (Kotterman, 2006). This is likely because the subordinate ratings were the opinions of followers for preference of leadership style versus the key financial objectives of the manager. This study used qualitative analysis to review information about Financial Life Cycle Phases, CEO attributes and perceived leadership effectiveness from five (5) automotive firms over a ten-year period. Financial information determined the Financial Life-Cycle Phase progressions of each case study company and qualitative content analysis determined if each CEO was predominantly more transformational or transactional. Contour plots summarized the research data and associated the Financial Life Cycle Phases in relation to CEO attributes and stakeholders’ investment knowledge of leadership effectiveness. The contour plots established that pattern matching existed in comparison to the proposed multi-dimensional leadership model and validated an association between the Financial Life Cycle Phase of an organization, the type of leadership and the stock performance. The contour plots revealed stock returns were proportionally greater during lower Financial Life Cycle Phases when the case study CEOs used transformational means and as well as when the CEOs used transactional methods, during higher Financial Life Cycle Phases.
|Subjects||Management; Information science|
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