This dissertation describes the development of new and practical methodologies for the synthesis of a broad variety of fluorinated heterocycles and vinyl fluorides via acid and base catalysis, respectively. It also describes efficient cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds using a variety of nucleophilic catalysts.
Chapter 1 explores the rich history of fluorine and its compounds. Important milestones that have made a significant contribution to the field of chemistry are highlighted with emphasis on fluorine’s role in medicinal chemistry. Methods to introduce fluorine are also included in this chapter.
Chapter 2 deals with the use of gallium (III) triflate as a versatile Lewis acid for the synthesis of different fluorinated heterocycles and α-aminonitriles. The condensation-cyclization reactions of various aromatic amino derivatives with fluorinated ketones to afford the corresponding fluorinated benzimidazolines, benzothiazolines, benzoxazolines, and dihydrobenzoxazinones, as well as fluorinated 1, 5 benzodiazepines and quinoxaline derivatives is described. Also included in this chapter are the syntheses of α-aminonitriles and their fluorinated analogs via the multicomponent Strecker reaction using gallium (III) triflate. Monofluoro-, difluoro-, or trifluoromethyl groups have been incorporated into both heterocycles and the α-aminonitrile products by varying the nature of the fluorinated ketones.
In Chapter 3, Nafion®-H, a perfluoroalkanesulfonic acid resin, is shown to be a suitable solid acid catalyst with high selectivity and catalytic activity for the one-pot synthesis of fluorinated heterocycles. The Nafion-H mediated reactions are easily achieved under mild conditions in high yields and purity. Monofluoro, difluoro and trifluoromethylated derivatives can be prepared and its advantage as a solid superacid is highlighted by the recyclability studies.
Chapter 4 describes a new approach for the stereoselective synthesis of vinyl fluorides using α-substituted fluoro(phenylsulfonyl)methane derivatives under mildly basic reaction conditions. A variety of fluorovinyl sulfones as well as α-fluoro-α,β-unsaturated carbonyls can be synthesized to afford the E-isomer.
Finally, in Chapter 5, cyanosilylation of aldehydes and ketones using various nucleophilic catalysts under mild conditions is portrayed. Use of dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent, afforded the trimethylsilylated cyanohydrins in good to excellent yields. K2CO3 and (MeO)2P(O)(O -)(N+Bu4)3 have been employed as the nucleophilic catalysts for the cyanosilylation using trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN).