Diagnosis with a life threatening illness, such as cancer, was recognized in DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) as a traumatic stressor that could precipitate Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Prevalence estimates of cancer-related PTSD range from 3% to 4% in recently diagnosed early stage patients to 35% in patients evaluated after treatment (Gurevich, Devins & Rodin, 2002; Kangas, Henry, & Bryant, 2002). Prevalence of PTSD-like symptoms (e.g., intrusive ideation, avoidance) ranges from 20% in patients with early stage cancer to 80% in patients with recurrent cancer (Gurevich, Devins & Rodin, 2002). There is some evidence that patients that have more advanced disease and that undergo more aggressive treatment may be at greater risk for such stress response symptoms (Andrykowski & Cordova, 1998; Gurevich et al., 2002). Bone marrow transplantation (BMT), although potentially lifesaving, is considerably more invasive than traditional therapies, and survivors can experience significant psychological effects (Andrykowski, Brady & Greiner, 1995; Andrykowski, Greiner, Altmaier & Burnish, 1995; Andrykowski & McQuellon, 1998; Broers & Kaptein, 2000; Baker, et al., 1991; Hengeveld, et al., 1998; Syrjala et al., 1993; Lesko et al., 1992; Jacobsen et al., 1998; Mundy et al., 2000; Jacobsen, Sadler, Booth-Jones, Soety, Weitzner, & Fields 2002; Widows, Jacobsen & Fields, 2000). However, there have been relatively few investigations of PTSD in BMT survivors (Jacobsen et al., 1998; Jacobsen et al., 2002; DuHamel et al., 2001; Mundy et al., 2000; Smith, et al., 1999), and questions remain regarding prevalence, predictors, and quality of life correlates of PTSD following BMT. Given the increasing use of BMT as a conventional cancer therapy, the increased risk for emotional distress in BMT survivors, and the limitations of the existing literature, further investigation in this area is warranted.