This quantitative study explored the effectiveness of religious leaders with respect to engagement in exemplary leadership practices and dark leadership (Conger, 1990). According to Kouzes and Posner (2001), highly effective leaders engaging in five exemplary practices experience increased: (a) effectiveness in meeting job-related demands, (b) success in representing their units to upper management, (c) ability to create high-performance teams, (d) ability to create atmospheres of loyalty and commitment, (e) ability to motivate others, (f) ability to reduce employee absenteeism and turnover, and (g) personal credibility with others. This study explored "Modeling the Way" (Kouzes & Posner, 2001, p. 6) relative to "codependency" which was defined by McIntosh and Rima (1997) as a dementia of dark leadership. Some religious leaders of nonprofit organizations have engaged in codependent behavior when challenged to clarify core values and express personal beliefs in organizations where overseers, colleagues, direct reports, and followers had different values and beliefs. Data was collected for this study through use of two instruments—the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-SELF) developed by Kouzes and Posner (1988) and a Leadership Reflection Survey that utilizes a codependency inventory developed by McIntosh and Rima (1997). Participants were randomly selected from religious leaders registered with a list broker, Renegade Idea Group. Both instruments were provided to religious leaders who agreed to participate by way of email. Data from completed instruments were analyzed in SPSS. It was suspected that statistical analysis would reveal a strong negative relationship between religious leaders' scores with regards to modeling the way and codependency. Had such a relationship existed, the implication of these findings would have been that religious leaders possessing strong ability to clarify core values and express personal beliefs are not as likely to engage in codependent behavior as those who do not.
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