Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis.
An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nuclephiles, which can react with arynes generated from o-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions.
Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofurans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield.
Insertion of an aryne into a σ-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N σ-bond addition of amides and S-N σ-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions.
The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF.
Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.