The four-factor model attitudes of women toward the glass ceiling

by Linear, Lillie F., Ph.D., CAPELLA UNIVERSITY, 2016, 136 pages; 10169622


Until 2000, no studies had concentrated on the glass ceiling in the nonprofit sector until Gibelman’s research. The focus of this quantitative research study was to determine if the four-factors (denial, resignation, resilience, and acceptance) that made up the four-factor model of attitudes women experienced about the glass ceiling existed within the nonprofit sector. Four controlling variables (education, tenure, race, and age) were also used in this investigation. Approximately 21 years after the 1995 Glass Ceiling Commission Report, the findings from this quantitative study showed that the glass ceiling in the nonprofit sector, particularly regarding senior-level status was present. The findings also showed that the glass ceiling was statistically significant to only two of the factors, the denial and resignation factors statements. The control variables did not have a statistically significant relationship with the glass ceiling responses, although age and race did have a minimal significance.

AdviserLaurel Gulish Beckham
Source TypeDissertation
SubjectsWomen's studies; Management; Behavioral sciences
Publication Number10169622

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